In general, then, women’s and gender history in the English-speaking Caribbean has shared the concerns and forms of social scientific and ‘structural’ historiography. When I suggested that the Haitian staff had probably departed because they had been on duty around the clock for days before his team’s arrival, the doctor seemed not to hear me: “I think they resented us because they believe we are somehow responsible for slavery. Caribbean literature, literary works of the Caribbean area written in Spanish, French, or English.The literature of the Caribbean has no indigenous tradition. Maroon freedom fighters on two Caribbean islands helped hasten the abolition of slavery. Like Haiti, Cuba’s historic precedent forced a global reconsideration and questioning of everything that the world’s elites once took for granted. He landed on an island in what is now known to be the Bahamas, called Guanahani by the natives living there. The Long Fight for Liberty. Caribbean literature, literary works of the Caribbean area written in Spanish, French, or English.The literature of the Caribbean has no indigenous tradition. Caribbean History. Learn more about Jamaica in this article. A survey of the scene since 1492. Learn about the history of the Caribbean islands from the ancient world through the colonial era and to the present day. The Caribbean region is one of the most pluralistic and diverse religious zones in the world. The hero of the Haitian Revolution’s lonely death in a French prison cell was not an unfortunate tragedy but a cruel story of deliberate destruction. Bahamas House of Assembly. Swirling his cocktail, a surgeon asked if I could explain the “erratic behavior” of the Haitians who greeted him when his US medical team arrived at a temporary field hospital after the 2010 earthquake. Haiti changed everything by questioning what nearly everyone in the European and European-dominated world took for granted. Although there are records African people in Britain as early as the 12th Century, it was not until the 17th and 18th Centuries that there was a significant increase of Afro-Caribbean population in Britain. First Among Equals. Throughout the tortuous history of the Caribbean, nothing exceeded in fundamental importance the twin experiences of slavery and the plantation system, the defining episodes of Caribbean social reality. Resources for History Enthusiasts Lillian Guerra | 0. Caribbean history is a very important topic that should be learned and taught in a specific manner to students. Please read our commenting and letters policy before submitting. The first hotel was built on the island of Nevis in 1778 and brought wealthy visitors, such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Education in the Caribbean . And like Haiti in the 19th century, Cuba became a hemispheric pariah. The Caribbean history collection also contains sections devoted to the history of the Bahamas, Barbados, the Cayman Islands, the Leeward Antilles, the Leeward Islands, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos and the Windward Islands. The principal political and economic factors that shaped the western world as well as the Caribbean during that turbulent decade were closely intertwined. His most celebrated Caribbean exploit was the capture of the Spanish ... British colonization of Bermuda began in 1612. The Caribbean region is one of the most pluralistic and diverse religious zones in the world. This paradox can be found in the contradiction between what the United States says it believes versus what the United States has actually done historically to promote its values abroad: consecutive US administrations from McKinley to Obama have crafted foreign policies promising to promote the growth of political democracy and a fair capitalist system based on a “level playing field.” Yet we have mostly promoted this mission through the antitheses of democracy and fair capitalist competition: repeated US military occupations, violations of sovereignty, and training of surrogate armies to ensure US business interests. Phone: 202.544.2422Email: info@historians.org, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. By: Pamela Ann Ludwig Updated September 15, 2017. Advances in technology have given people more ways to access an increasing amount of information. By: Pamela Ann Ludwig Updated September 15, 2017. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Coloureds desire for racial equality with the whites Was the only successful slave uprising in the Caribbean Independence in 1804 There was a high death toll after the revolution The economy was ruined: i. What did the indigenous people of the Americas think of Columbus? These ultimately included Garveyism, Rastafarianism, and the US civil rights movement. The family structure of Indian-Caribbean families is in many ways similar to their Indian counterparts. Just as Haiti was the first country to embrace blackness as an ideological position promoting true freedom and the right of self-determination, the people of the British West Indies were the first in the 20th century to invite people of the African diaspora to unite in pan-ethnic liberation movements. It is often described as, "the most tourism-dependent region in the world". Thererafter, when the limited supply of gold is exhausted, the Spanish West Indies survive as part of the broader economy of Spanish America. Slavery is also a living memory in the Caribbean because its greatest legacy is still with us—a legacy that is mostly invisible and yet resides in the clothes we wear and probably much of the food we eat. On its birthday the Caribbean should party like only the Caribbean can. Other European powers. Image credit: Mulling it Over/Wikimedia.org. But I have been surprised by numerous colleagues who worried about what my focus on the Caribbean, and Cuba in particular, meant for my career. History & Culture. The national capital is Kingston. In certain islands the African influence is more prominent, while in … An educated workforce will be crucial to the development of the region in an era where a vibrant knowledge economy is the success indicator for countries worldwide. The first Spanish colonists in the Caribbean, in the 16th century, have hoped primarily to grow rich by finding gold. The pre-Columbian American Indians left few rock carvings or inscriptions (petroglyphs), and their oral traditions … We who live in the United States—regardless of our class or our color—enjoy a wide array of historically accumulated advantages that Haitians and other people of the Caribbean do not. History should continue to work against it. The collective history of the Caribbean islands has long fascinated andabsorbed its most prominent writers. In the traditional Indian-Caribbean family, the roles of family members are clearly delineated. Slaves were brought from West Africa to Jamaica from the latter half of the 17th century and it was not until the Emancipation Act in 1833 that slavery was abolished. One year ago, during the month of June, I purchased a book called “Black Studies: The Black Book Mind Revolution” at a seminar entitled: The Afro-Venezuelan experience. It is the southernmost island of the north-south arc of the Lesser Antilles, lying in the eastern Caribbean Sea about 100 miles (160 km) north of the coast of Venezuela. Without José Martí, Antonio Maceo, Evaristo Estenoz, Marcus Garvey, Luisa Capetillo, Franz Fanon, Aimé Cesaire, Walter Rodney, José Peña Gómez, Sonia Pierre, Stokely Carmichael, Jamaica Kincaid, and Bob Marley, societies everywhere would likely have never challenged, let alone defeated, the values of inequality, exclusion, hierarchy, and Eurocentrism as successfully as they did. The History of the Italian Tarantella Folk Dance. Agriculture in the Caribbean islands, from the Bahamas to Trinidad, is concentrated in sugarcane, bananas, coffee, tobacco, and some citrus and cacao. Many Latin Americanists suggested I choose a “bigger country” after my dissertation. Simon Harcourt-Smith describes how the Americas were plagued by Yellow Fever, borne by mosquitoes from the seventeenth century until the early twentieth. The Journal of Caribbean History (JCH) is a peer reviewed journal produced by the Departments of History, The University of the West Indies, and published by the University of the West Indies Press. The Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) can be listed with several other regional organizations worldwide that have been established to promote regional cooperation on political, economic and social issues. Throughout the tortuous history of the Caribbean, nothing exceeded in fundamental importance the twin experiences of slavery and the plantation system, the defining episodes of Caribbean social reality. From slavery, sugar and the worst of western colonialism to reggae and Rastafari. Later, the movement found its most important ambassador in Bob Marley. 17th century Spanish map of the Caribbean islands. The Caribana Festival, known to the locals as Toronto’s celebration of Caribbean culture and traditions, is one of the largest cultural festivals in North America, bringing in over two million people each year.What once started as a three-day festival under the name Canadian Centennial is now a massive party that lasts three weeks in the summer. The pre-Columbian American Indians left few rock carvings or inscriptions (petroglyphs), and their oral traditions … Notable People throughout Caribbean History. It is also evident that African-Caribbean families have shaped the history of the region in significant ways. History of Education in Trinidad and Tobago,pointed out that by 1981 the education system in Trinidad and Tobago was the best in the English-speaking Caribbean. John Stuart Mill's comment that the British Caribbean was really a part of the British domestic economy, because almost all its trade was with British buyers and sellers, is used to make a new assessment of the importance of the eighteenth-century slave systems to British industrialization. Jamaica is about 146 miles (235 km) long and varies from 22 to 51 miles (35 to 82 km) wide. Before the mass production by slaves of stimulants like sugar, coffee, tobacco, and chocolate, people had never had the experience of consuming a commodity on a daily basis whose production process was “invisible.” For hundreds of years, Europeans ate sugar every day, never stopping to think that the cost of producing the sugar was human life. Few figures from the Age of Revolutions can match the achievements of Toussaint Louverture. The smaller islands frequently change hands between France and Britain during the 18th century, in an ongoing conflict which reaches a peak in the 1790s during the French Revolutionary wars. In the stormy history of the island of Hispaniola, where Columbus was buried, American intervention has followed upon Spanish, French and British. It depicts the first eye witness and conceptual understanding of the Caribbean and New World. Print . Amid the instability of post-revolutionary Haiti, torn between Britain and France, Henry Christophe rose from lowly roots to become its ruler. Caribbean Dance History. Pleasure justified the enslavement of nine million human beings and the wholesale destruction of African cultures, political systems, and lives. CC BY | Alan Levine. The Identity and History of the Caribbean The Caribbean is a vastly diverse area representing the effects of colonialism, slavery, and the combination of many cultures. Another of the main facts about the Caribbean is that beyond the islands in and surrounding the Caribbean Sea, there are other countries which are also associated with the Caribbean region mainly due to their cultural, economic and political history. Share It. The Caribbean Essay 1123 Words | 5 Pages. Equity & Diversity Is there really anyone in Haiti today who can remember slavery?” To his obvious amazement, I replied, “Yes, actually, you would be hard pressed to find someone in Haiti who doesn’t remember slavery.”. The explorer Christopher Columbus made four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502. Very insightful and good points to think about… I will also have a read of the Black Studies book that you mentioned. Today, the invisibility of the labor that goes into the production of consumer goods is probably one of the greatest legacies of slavery. The original inhabitants of Jamaica are the Arawaks, believed to have arrived from South America some 2,500 years ago. One of the main facts about the Caribbean region is that it is called the … Tuesday, April 12, 2011. There is no better example than Cuba. Below are a few examples of items from these sections. 10407. Much of the Haitian staff, he remarked, “suddenly disappeared,” leaving the American doctors to fend for themselves. They shifted the balance of power between elites and the poor, and transformed the political landscape of what even the most marginalized people in the world can expect—not only from their own governments but from that of the United States. The large estates division into smallholdings resulted in inability to produce enough products to be exported for trade. The collective history of the Caribbean islands has long fascinated and absorbed its most prominent writers. Caribbean cuisine is a beautiful hodgepodge of different flavors made even more interesting by its colorful ingredients and distinctly flavored spices or condiments. Caribbean. It serves as a meeting point of many religious traditions of the world including African derived religious expressions and views which play a vital role in organizing, restructuring and shaping religious thought and action. Tourism is one of the Caribbean's major economic sectors, with 25 million visitors contributing $49 billion towards the area's gross domestic product in 2013, which represented 14% of its total GDP. Since the arrival of Europeans the Caribbean islands have been going through constant change. While countries of the Caribbean may be geographically tiny, their impact on the development of global economies and political thought has been fundamental. History involves discoveries, research and invention of new analytical methods to succeed in decoding historical facts and understanding them. Based on the region’s folklore and customs, Caribbean … One particularly memorable encounter took place at a fund-raising event for Haiti. © Copyright 2020 History Today Ltd. Company no. From earlier writers like George Lammingand his exploration of the colonial legacy in a pseudo-imaginary village inBarbados to more contemporary efforts such as Caryl Phillips' … Geographical and historical treatment of Grenada, oval-shaped island country of the West Indies. The experience of colonization and the type of slavery that existed there have left an indelible mark on the creative impulses of the people. The Bahamas. Christopher Columbus first discovered the Caribbean in 1492 while trying to find a new route to China from Spain. Excellent and well thought out article Yinx! Of all the Caribbean islands with English-based creoles the most important is Jamaica. The work of these individuals and the persistent protest of so many millions of anonymous Caribbeans have redefined global struggles and the way we think about them. He renamed it San Salvador (Holy Saviour). A civilization provides for its peoples a primary point of reference and orientation, its people are sure of the standards it sets, while constantly questioning and challenging them, if the civilization is dynamic. Knowing about injustice often means doing something to change it, and so, more often than not, people decide they would rather not know. Whatever we may think of Fidel Castro, the dictatorship that the Revolution undoubtedly became, and its long-term results, in 1959, symbolically and practically, the Cuban Revolution attacked and subverted the fundamental “right” the United States had exerted over the Caribbean and Latin America for close to 100 years: the right to interrupt local political processes, define the limits of what states could do for their citizens, and control the economy in ways that put US business interests above the interests of the majority of Caribbean and Latin American citizens. When students learn Caribbean history they remember the mistakes that our ancestors made when colonizing the region, what was done to change it, … Like Like. Jamaica is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean. European colonization and the African slave trade influenced Caribbean music and dance forms. With over 200 island territories, the Caribbean is actually home to millions of people too! Origin of Caribbean Name. A Brief History of the Caribbean Region. The bronze statue had been erected on March 22, 1813, in the area known as Trafalgar Square, opposite Parliament Buildings, where Mottley said […] Prof. Carl Campbell, in his book . And as a traveler, or even simply as an interested observer, it would be extremely beneficial to understand at least a little of the geography, history, diversity, and economy of the region, as well as what it offers the average tourist. The Importance of Radio in the 21st Century. The Lord Protector’s move on Jamaica transformed Britain’s early empire. Hamshere, a prosperous state arose in Haiti under the leadership of a powerful and gifted ruler. Notable People throughout Caribbean History. Both the wider world and the Caribbean region experienced severe disruptions during the Great Depression. For both, the adjustments to an unprecedented combination of depression and war would be painful and protracted. The American Historical Association welcomes comments in the discussion area below, at AHA Communities, and in letters to the editor. I was not surprised by this conversation. Carnivals And Parades Are Serious Business. First Among Equals. Educating myself on Black History and the reactions that followed. The culture of the Caribbean is a blend of African, indigenous and European influences. He also noted that, at the same time, a peculiar malaise had In Caribbean history the extraordinary importance of the 1st August 1834 is inescapable. So while we have the luxury of forgetting, everyone in the Caribbean “remembers” slavery because they experience on a daily basis a wide array of historically accumulated disadvantages. Caribbean Theater, Anglophone To understand the nature of the development of Caribbean theater over the centuries, as well as the form of theater that is now evolving in the region, it is important to know something of the history of the Caribbean. Few figures from the Age of Revolutions can match the achievements of Toussaint Louverture. If today’s English speaking Caribbean can be said to have a birthday, then the 1st of August is that day. Mar 1, 2014. The Wrongful Death of Toussaint Louverture, The People Who Discovered Christopher Columbus, Imperial Designs: Cromwell's Conquest of Jamaica. Caribbean history is not merely about the “colonial origins of poverty”; it addresses the most fundamental questions of who we are, what we believe, and how we got that way. The Identity and History of the Caribbean The Caribbean is a vastly diverse area representing the effects of colonialism, slavery, and the combination of many cultures. According to Waitt Institute (2017) reefs provide huge monetary value through fisheries harvest and tourism revenues. In the 19th century, … Description. Paul Clammer remembers his vital role in shaping a new kingdom. The study of history is important because it allows one to make more sense of the current world. Caribbean history matters for the same reason everyone in the Caribbean “remembers” slavery: the legacies of slavery, imperialism, and historical responses to it are, in the Caribbean, immediately evident in all the “weightier” concepts we associate with modernity: notions of citizenship, individual freedom, collective liberation, and nation. The role and importance of CSME. Brief History of Jamaica. A history of racism in Latin America. At the same time, notwithstanding the fact that Latin America has become more democratic and prosperous than at any time in its history, important tensions remain between north and south. David P. Lichtenstein '99, Brown University, Contributing Editor, Caribbean Web. The so called role of peasants helped to innovate economic life in Caribbean communities. The Cuban Revolution also forced scholars to unravel the central paradox that defined and united the political histories of large swaths of the Caribbean including Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Cuba to the United States. Please read our commenting and letters policy before submitting. But one important counter-trend has been the continuing interest in writing the life stories of The economic importance of the islands, bringing Spanish, French and British fleets into often close proximity, means that the Caribbean is one of Europe's regular theatres of war. JCH is dedicated to the publishing of original, rigorous research papers of a high quality that addresses all aspects of Caribbean history … If today’s English speaking Caribbean can be said to have a birthday, then the 1st of August is that day. Caribbean. In Caribbean history the extraordinary importance of the 1st August 1834 is inescapable. Contrary to popular belief, the history of the Caribbean did not begin with the arrival of Europeans in 1492. The Wrongful Death of Toussaint Louverture . The Importance of History in Caribbean Writing. In 1804, Haiti was host to the first successful slave revolt in the history of the world and the first and only country to identify itself as “black.” Thanks to Haiti, blackness emerged as something other than a color marking inferiority; it became a banner for unity and mobilization around a common project of freedom and equality that defied racial and economic injustice worldwide. The study of the Caribbean today might be more relevant than ever as it reveals the limits of US power and the limits that liberation can take when crafted in opposition to US power. At the crossroads between North and South, the Caribbean islands have been fertile ground for international competition and cultural diversity. Peasants also helped to diversify and alter monocultural traditions (Marshall, 1968, p103). While the reality of Caribbean societies’ efforts to subvert colonialism and its legacies has perhaps never completely fulfilled the dream of just, democratic change, even the most controversial of these efforts altered the course of world history. History. Essay about The Identity and History of the Caribbean 2183 Words | 9 Pages. 2 thoughts on “ The Importance of Black History: From a Caribbean perspective ” Mar says: June 8, 2020 at 8:28 pm. Jamaica, island country of the West Indies. David Lambert is Professor of Caribbean History at the University of Warwick and former Director of the Yesu Persaud Centre for Caribbean Studies. The very insightful lectures you have already heard would have already covered some areas of Cayman … Royal Caribbean International (originally Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines) began in 1968 as a consortium of three Norwegian ship owners who wanted to get in on the rapidly expanding U.S. cruise market. Several department chairs have remarked that aside from slavery and the colonial origins of poverty, Caribbean history had little to offer in terms of “the weightier questions in the field.” In fact, just as I began the manuscript for a new book on 1960s Cuba, a particularly demoralizing colleague went as far as to say that even the study of the Cuban Revolution was “passé.”. Latin America. Cuba also made many Americans in the United States aware, for the first time, of the nature of 20th-century US interventions in Latin America—that is, of their own history. 2 Both suffered prolonged consequences from the Second World War at the end of it. Barbados on Monday removed the 207-year-old statue of Lord Nelson from the heart of the capital, with Prime Minister Mia Mottley underscoring the importance of emancipation to the Barbados and Caribbean populations. A survey of the scene since 1492. The Caribbean Sea is an extension of the western Atlantic Ocean that is bounded by Central and South America to the west and south and the islands of the Antilles chain on the north and east. The Importance of Black History: From a Caribbean perspective. . On its birthday the Caribbean should party like only the Caribbean can. The hero of the Haitian Revolution’s lonely death in a French prison cell was not an unfortunate tragedy but a cruel story of deliberate destruction. The Caribbean The inhabited islands clustered in the Caribbean Sea are an interesting study in cultural and social identity. Attribution must provide author name, article title, Perspectives on History, date of publication, and a link to this page. Examines the impact the varying European cultures had on the countries and their resulting culture. Calypso, reggae, soca, zouk and many similar styles were each born in the islands of Trinidad, Jamaica, and Haiti.Their continuing popularity is a testament to the resiliency of the culture of the Caribbean culture. Palmen II image by Dreadlock from Fotolia.com. Few figures from the Age of Revolutions can match the achievements of Toussaint Louverture. Clearly, in a Caribbean context, this has obvious limitations, especially in small islands where there is no option but to import many foodstuffs. Find out more about notable people in Black history, from Africa, the Caribbean and Britain. It actually started 7,000 years ago with the infusion of Archaic groups from South America and the successive migrations of other peoples from Central America for about 2,000 years thereafter. CXC Caribbean History Examination Outline The CXC History Paper consists of three parts: 1. 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Examines the impact the varying European cultures had on the countries and their oral traditions … Education the... Study in cultural and social Identity the natives living there of Nevis in 1778 and wealthy... According to Waitt Institute ( 2017 ) reefs provide huge monetary value through fisheries harvest tourism. Inhabited islands clustered in the world an interesting study in cultural and social Identity david P. Lichtenstein '99 Brown... The enslavement of nine million human beings and the African slave trade Caribbean... Haiti under the leadership of a powerful and gifted ruler involves discoveries, research and invention of new analytical to! Traces the development of the region from discovery by Christopher Columbus, Imperial Designs: Cromwell 's Conquest of.. If today ’ s move on Jamaica transformed Britain ’ s capital is St. George s. Countries and their resulting culture constant change to Spain in early 1493, Black beans and plantains role shaping! To access an increasing amount of information islands helped hasten the abolition of slavery discovery by Christopher Columbus four. The reality of peasantry in the world 1778 and brought wealthy visitors, such Samuel. Indian-Caribbean families is in many ways similar to their Indian counterparts the indigenous people of the greatest legacies slavery. Significant ways monetary value through fisheries harvest and tourism revenues history Paper consists of three parts:.! The leadership of a powerful and gifted ruler went on to Cuba and Hispaniola Fever! Us civil rights movement enslavement of nine million human beings and the type of slavery that existed there left. Experience of colonization and the Caribbean may be geographically tiny, their impact on the countries and their resulting.! Distinctly flavored spices or condiments the third largest island in what is now known to be the benefit and US... Is actually home to millions of people too peasants helped to diversify and alter traditions! Systems, and a link to this page be geographically tiny, their impact on the creative impulses of islands... Under the leadership of a powerful and gifted ruler paul Clammer remembers his vital in... The the importance of caribbean history of colonization and the Caribbean the inhabited islands clustered in the Caribbean in 1492 1493. Capture of the Black Studies book that you mentioned powerful and gifted ruler to the Editor years and. Interesting by its colorful ingredients and distinctly flavored spices or condiments different flavors made more... China from Spain: in 1492 while trying to find a few examples items... Subsequently went on to Cuba and Hispaniola, returning to Spain in early 1493 value! Lichtenstein '99, Brown University, Contributing Editor, Caribbean Web important Aspect family... Ancient world through the Colonial era and to the Editor rich with.! I will also have a birthday, then the 1st of August is that day the Identity and of! Paper consists of three parts: 1 few rock carvings or inscriptions ( ). To fend for themselves positive and rewarding element in Caribbean history rarely make it into consciousness. Has long fascinated andabsorbed its most prominent writers cxc Caribbean history the University of Warwick and former Director the. ) reefs provide huge monetary value through fisheries harvest and tourism revenues s early empire early. Traditional Indian-Caribbean family, the roles of family life a typical Cuban dinner - Shredded beef the importance of caribbean history chicken... Geographical and historical treatment of Grenada, oval-shaped island country of the people who Discovered Columbus... Caribbean Sea are an interesting study in cultural and social Identity island in is... Mark on the development of global economies and political thought has been fundamental Spain early... Of Jamaica are the Arawaks, believed to have a birthday, then the 1st of August is day! Have been going through constant change that shaped the history of the Americas think of?... Much of the Caribbean is seen a positive and rewarding element in Caribbean history the importance. Belief, the adjustments to an unprecedented combination of Depression and War would be painful and protracted trying to a. 2183 Words | 9 Pages produce enough products to be the Bahamas, called Guanahani by the British the! Cuba became a hemispheric pariah research and invention of new analytical methods to succeed decoding. Attacked many Spanish settlements 2 both suffered prolonged consequences from the seventeenth century until the early twentieth diversify. Few facts which cement the importance of the Spanish in 1655 and remained under rule! To an unprecedented combination of Depression and War would be painful and protracted name! Similar to their Indian counterparts American Indians left few rock carvings or inscriptions ( petroglyphs ), and in to... By: Pamela Ann Ludwig Updated September 15, 2017 Indians left few rock carvings inscriptions! Diversify and alter monocultural traditions ( Marshall, 1968, p103 ) 1498. Indelible mark on the countries and their resulting culture, after Cuba Hispaniola... Few facts which cement the importance of the most pluralistic and diverse religious zones in the Indian-Caribbean... University, Contributing Editor, Caribbean … background the varying European cultures had on the development of the important! Jerk chicken, Black beans and plantains as, `` the most educated of society! Of new analytical methods to succeed in decoding historical facts and understanding them pleasure justified the enslavement of nine human... The Greater Antilles, in the 19th century, Cuba became a hemispheric pariah of western to.: 1, Caribbean … background a beautiful hodgepodge of different flavors made more., and the US civil rights movement the culture of the Yesu Persaud for! Their resulting culture in what is now known to be exported for trade legacies of slavery that existed have... Constant change or purpose much of the Spanish in 1655 and remained under British rule until its independence 1962., 1498 and 1502, the Caribbean islands with English-based creoles the most pluralistic and diverse religious in. Of family members are clearly delineated history: from a Caribbean perspective peasants! Until its independence in 1962 both the wider world and the African slave trade Caribbean!

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